|Title||Negative Efficacy of Fixed Gain Error Reducing Shared Control for Training in Virtual Environments|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2009|
|Authors||Li, Y, Patoglu, V, O'Malley, MK|
|Journal||ACM Transactions on Applied Perception|
Virtual reality with haptic feedback provides a safe and versatile practice medium for many manual control tasks. Haptic guidance has been shown to improve performance of manual control tasks in virtual environments; however, the efficacy of haptic guidance for training in virtual environments has not been studied conclusively. This article presents experimental results that show negative efficacy of haptic guidance during training in virtual environments. The haptic guidance in this study is a fixed-gain error-reducing shared controller, with the control effort overlaid on the dynamics of the manual control task during training. Performance of the target-hitting manual control task in the absence of guidance is compared for three training protocols. One protocol contained no haptic guidance and represented virtual practice. Two protocols utilized haptic guidance, varying the duration of exposure to guidance during the training sessions. Exposure to the fixed-gain error-reducing shared controller had a detrimental effect on performance of the target-hitting task at the conclusion of a month-long training protocol, regardless of duration of exposure. While the shared controller was designed with knowledge of the task and an intuitive sense of the motions required to achieve good performance, the results indicate that the acquisition of motor skill is a complex phenomenon that is not aided with haptic guidance during training as implemented in this experiment.